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Old 16-11-2005, 09:13 AM
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Hiv/aids Report

Case reporting system for HIV/AIDS cases in Papua New Guinea

Introduction

National AIDS Council and Department of Health produces this report each quarter summarising HIV/AIDS surveillance data. It provides vital information on the number of infections detected from the first detected case in 1987 until the date of this report.

Both organizations have taken another major step forward in conducting more active surveillance in major sentinel sites to collect both behavioural and sero data for assessment of situations especially within the low (antenatal mothers) and the high risk populations (STI patients).The sero sentinel surveillance conducted in the last 3 years are helping us understand the epidemic much better. Prevalence results of some of the surveillance conducted are highlighted in this report (Table 1.12).

Major findings of the report are presented in table forms and are supported with figures. A brief commentary is given highlighting important areas and their status. Explanatory footnotes are provided at the bottom of the figures to verify missing data, this is done because when included they tend to falsify data of other areas with lower case reports (see footnotes).

1.0 HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea, 1987 - 31/1212004

Cumulative Totals

There has been 11139 people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS infection, 5363 (48%) in males, 5129 (46%) in females and 647 (6%) in individuals whose sex was not stated (Table 1.1, Figure 1.1). Of the 11139 individuals notified with HIV infection, 1926 presented with an AIDS defining illness at the time of diagnosis, 1374 people were classified with HIV infection, 7839 individuals remain unclassified and 353 deaths have been reported (Table 1.2).

It should be noted that currently there is no formal AIDS or HIV/AIDS related deaths notification system in place. An AIDS diagnosis is made at the same time as the HIV diagnosis therefore; the number of AIDS cases and deaths documented in this report does not reflect an accurate account of AIDS cases reported.

Estimations

The first National Consensus Workshop held in year 2000 estimated a total number of HIV infected persons in Papua New Guinea was in the range of 10,000 to 15,000. (Estimates range of 5500 to 22000 depending on the lowest and highest prevalence rates used for estimates).

Currently estimation of the number of individuals infected with HIV is shown to be much higher because the numbers of known HIV positive has been exponentially increasing every year since 2000. The National AIDS Council Secretariat in partnership with the National Department of Health conducted the 2"d National Consensus workshop in November 2004, with support from AUSaid through the National HIV/AIDS Support project and WHO.

The Consensus Workshop estimated that there are between 25,000 to 69,000 people infected with HIV in the country, with a median estimate of 47,000. This translates to an adult prevalence of 0.9 % to 2.5%, with a median prevalence of 1.7%.

Provincial Status

Fifty six percent of the cases have been diagnosed in NCD while 16%, 7%, 6% and 4% of the cases have been reported from WHIP, Morobe and EHP; and Enga and Simbu respectively; this probably reflects the testing practices in these provinces (Table 1.3, Figure 1.2). Province of origin is only reported in 23% of HIV cases reports while the remaining 77 % of cases province of origin is not known (table 1.4) Of the 23 % of known cases Gulf and Central provinces begin to shows increases while the highlands provinces shows continuos increase.

Regional statistics shows that higher rate of infection is detected in the Southern region than other regions. This reflects the testing practises in the region, especially within the National Capital District. From the available data, the statistics also shows that 64% of the reported cases originate from the highlands, while Southern, Momase, Islands and Expats have reported 24%, 8%, 3% and 1 % respectively (refer to fig 1.9 and 1.10).

Last edited by storm boy; 16-11-2005 at 09:20 AM.
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Old 16-11-2005, 09:31 AM
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Mode of Transmission

Mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection has not been indicated in 8667 (78%) individuals. Of the remaining 22% where mode of transmission was reported, heterosexual transmission accounted for 2316 (93.7%) cases, while perinatal accounted for 147 (5.94%) and 9 (0.36%) cases was by homosexual spread. (Table1.5 and table 1.5).

Age Distribution

Age of individuals has not been recorded for 4424 (40%) cases notified. Of the remaining 60% the most common age at diagnosis in males was in the 25 - 34 year age group (23%). Of the women diagnosed, 44% were aged between 20 - 34 years. There are more males than females reported in all age groups except for the 15 - 29 year age groups where there are more females than males are reported (Tables 1.6, Figure 1.4).

2.0 HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea, 01/10/2004 - 31/12/2004
New Cases

There were 714 HIV/AIDS new cases reported in the 4`h quarter of this year, both male and female reported 249 (37%) and 273 (38%) respectively; and 192 (27%) in individuals whose sex was not stated (Table 1.7). Age was not available for (49%) of cases notified. Of the remaining 51% of cases notified the most common age at diagnosis was in between 20 - 34 year age group for both male and female (Table1.8). NCD reported 1124 cases (47%) during this period (Tables 1.9).

3.0 Sentinel Surveillance

Due to the pressing need for ongoing HIV surveillance the National AIDS Council Secretariat in collaboration with the Department of Health and with the support of the National HIV/AIDS Support Project has began Sentinel Sero Surveillance for HIV/AIDS in NCD, Eastern Highlands, WHP, Western and Morobe to ascertain the prevalence of HIV/AIDS within Antenatal, STI and TB patients.

This activity is important because it gives us the necessary information to monitor the epidemic, plan interventions as well as make appropriate decisions relating to testing, diagnosis and treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS infection in PNG.

Sentinel Sero-surveillance is done to monitor the epidemic in the low risk population (antenatal mothers) and also in the high risk group (people who attend the sexually transmitted infection clinic). The results from this surveillance program gives planners much more accurate information required to make informed decisions regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic, prevention and control programs.

The Sentinel surveillance data is managed by NACS/NDOH. Provincial Disease Control Officers are the key focal persons in the provinces for coordinating and supervising all sero and behavioural surveillance both for sentinel and routine surveillance. Data collected is compiled, analysed and will be disseminated through our normal HIV/AIDS and STI Quarterly Surveillance Report. Sentinel surveys have shown the following HIV prevalence: (table 1.12)
  • Pregnant women in antenatal clinic (ANC) in Goroka from 0.9% in 2002 to 3% in 2003
  • ANC in Daru of 0.7% in 2003
  • ANC at Port Moresby general hospital of 1% in 2002 and 1.35% in 2003
  • ANC in Lae of 2.5%
  • STI clinic attendees in Port Moresby of 9.6% in 2002 and 19.9% in 2004
  • STI clinic attendees in Mt Hagen of 6.3%
  • Tuberculosis patients in Port Moresby of 19%, in Lae of 15%, and in Goroka of 12%
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Old 16-11-2005, 12:55 PM
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Table 1.1 HIV/AIDS infection detected in Papua, 1987-31/12/2004.
Year of diagnosis and sex.
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Last edited by storm boy; 17-11-2005 at 02:08 PM.
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Old 16-11-2005, 01:03 PM
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Table 1.2 HIV/AIDS Cases detected in Papua New Guinea, 1987-31/12/2004.
Classification of case reports by year of diagnosis.
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Old 16-11-2005, 01:11 PM
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Figure 1.2 HIV/AIDS Infection detected in Papua New Gunea, 1987 - 31/12/2004
Province of Detection and Sex
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Last edited by storm boy; 16-11-2005 at 01:17 PM.
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Old 17-11-2005, 02:33 PM
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Figure 1.3 HIV/AIDS infection detected in Papua New Guinea, 1987 - 31/11/2004
Province of origin and sex
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Old 17-11-2005, 02:39 PM
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Figure 1.4 HIV/AIDS infection detected in Papua New Guinea, 1987 - 31/12/2004
Age group and Sex
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Old 17-11-2005, 02:47 PM
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Figure 1.5 HIV/AIDS Infection detection in Papua New Guinea, 01/10/2004 - 31/12/2004
Province of detection and sex
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Old 17-11-2005, 02:55 PM
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Figure 1.6 HIV/AIDS Infection detected in Papua New Guinea, 01/12/2004 - 31/12/2004
Age group and sex
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Old 17-11-2005, 03:01 PM
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Figure 1.7 HIV/AIDS Infection detection in Papua New Guinea, 01/12/2004 - 31/12/2004
Province of detection and sex
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